CJEM Articles: fibrinolysis
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Effect of time to electrocardiogram on time from electrocardiogram to fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction patientsMarch 2011 13 2Clare L. Atzema, Jack V. Tu, Michael J. Schull, Peter C. Austin
Objective:The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends a benchmark door-to-electrocardiogram (ECG) time of 10 minutes for acute myocardial infarction patients, but this is based on expert opinion (level of evidence C). We sought to establish an evidence-based benchmark door-to-ECG time.
Methods:This retrospective cohort study used a population-based sample of patients who suffered an ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in Ontario between 1999 and 2001. Using cubic smoothing splines, we described (1) the relationship between door-to-ECG time and ECG-to-needle time and (2) the proportion of STEMI patients who met the benchmark door-to-needle time of 30 minutes based on their door-to-ECG time. We hypothesized nonlinear relationships and sought to identify an inflection point in the latter curve that would define the most efficient (benefit the greatest number of patients) door-to-ECG time.
Results:In 2,961 STEMI patients, the median door-to-ECG and ECG-to-needle times were 8.0 and 27.0 minutes, respectively. There was a linear increase in ECG-to-needle time as the door-to-ECG time increased, up to approximately 30 minutes, after which the ECG-to-needle time remained constant at 53 minutes. The inflection point in the probability of achieving the benchmark door-to-needle time occurred at 4 minutes, after which it decreased linearly, with every minute of door-to-ECG time decreasing the average probability of achievement by 2.2%.
Conclusions:Hospitals that are not meeting benchmark reperfusion times may improve performance by decreasing door-to-ECG times, even if they are meeting the current AHA benchmark door-to-ECG time. The highest probability of meeting the reperfusion target time for fibrinolytic administration is associated with a door-to-ECG time of 4 minutes or less.
A door-to-needle time of 30 minutes or less for myocardial infarction thrombolysis is possible in rural emergency departmentsSeptember 2008 10 5Dean Vlahaki, Majed Fiaani, William Ken Milne
Objective: The Canadian Emergency Cardiac Care Coalition, the American Heart Association and similar groups have established a benchmark for the administration of thrombolytics in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) care as a door-to-needle (DTN) time of 30 minutes or less. Previous research suggests that this goal is not being achieved in Canada. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the target DTN time of 30 minutes or less for thrombolysis could be met in 2 rural Ontario emergency departments (EDs).
Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review and obtained descriptive data for each case, including demographic information and the Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) score. Visit timeline data were also collected and included the time during which patients saw a physician, had an electrocardiogram (ECG), received thrombolytic therapy and were discharged from the ED. Relevant time intervals, such as the median DTN time, were calculated.
Results: A total of 454 charts were reviewed for patients with a diagnosis of AMI who were seen between 1996 and 2007. The final sample consisted of 101 patients who received thrombolytics (63% men) whose median age was 67 years and median CTAS score was Level II (Emergent). The median door-to-ECG time was 6 minutes, door-to-physician time was 8 minutes and DTN time was 27 minutes; 58% of patients received thrombolytics within 30 minutes.
Conclusion: A DTN time of 30 minutes or less is achievable in rural EDs.
Neurologically normal survival after fibrinolysis during prolonged cardiac arrest: case report and discussionJanuary 2003 5 1Kevin Clark, Lois Graham, Peter J. Zed, Riyad B. Abu-Laban
Cardiac arrest secondary to pulmonary embolism is a devastating condition with a high mortality rate. It is currently unclear whether fibrinolysis (thrombolysis) is beneficial in this setting. We report the case of a 28-year-old woman with a pulmonary embolism who developed return of pulses following the administration of tissue plasminogen activator after 38 minutes of pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest. She went on to make a full neurologic and cardiopulmonary recovery. This case is discussed with reference to the current literature on the subject.