CJEM Articles: pulmonary embolism
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Jerrald Dankoff, Reviewed by: Joshua Guttman
Do specific elements of the history and physical examination predict the presence of pulmonary embolism in the emergency department?
Courtney DM, Kline JA, Kabrhel C, et al. Clinical features from the history and physical examination that predict the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism in symptomatic emergency department patients: results of a prospective, multicenter study. Ann Emerg Med 2010;55:307-15.
To determine whether implicit clinical predictors previously untested predict the presence of pulmonary embolism in the emergency department.
Deep vein thrombosis and bilateral pulmonary embolism following minor trauma to the popliteal fossa: could this have been avoided?March 2011 13 2Jason Orlik, Jennifer McVey
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with subsequent pulmonary embolus (PE) is frequently fatal if untreated. Athletes may be susceptible to DVT following minor blunt trauma to the popliteal fossa. We report an adult male hockey player with no “classic” risk factors for DVT who presented with a DVT and bilateral PE following minor popliteal blunt trauma. This case report illustrates the utility of likelihood ratios when interpreting the results of diagnostic tests such as Doppler ultrasonography.
Clinical outcomes and patient satisfaction of a pharmacist-managed, emergency department-based outpatient treatment program for venous thromboembolic diseaseJanuary 2008 10 1Lyne Filiatrault, Peter J. Zed
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety and patient satisfaction outcomes of our pharmacist-managed, emergency department (ED)-based outpatient treatment program for venous thromboembolism (VTE) disease.
Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all patients who were enrolled in the Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) outpatient VTE treatment program over a 7-year period (1999-2006). Efficacy outcomes include recurrent VTE events at 3 and 6 months following discharge from the program. Safety evaluation included major and minor bleeding complications and the development of thrombocytopenia during the acute phase of therapy. Patient satisfaction was assessed using an 18-question patient satisfaction survey, which was mailed to all patients following discharge from the program.
Results: Overall, 305 patients were included in the study. Of the 260 evaluable patients, 2 patients (0.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2-2.7) experienced a recurrent VTE at 3 months and 5 patients (1.9%, 95% CI 0.8-4.4) had a recurrence at 6 months. One patient (0.3%, 95% CI 0.1-1.8) experienced a major bleeding complication. Seven patients (2.3%, 95% CI 1.1-4.7) experienced a minor bleeding complication and no patient developed thrombocytopenia. Overall, 96.1% were comfortable having their condition treated as an outpatient and 85.7% felt it was more convenient to return to hospital daily for medications and assessment than to be admitted to hospital. Finally, 96.9% of respondents were very satisfied or satisfied with the treatment they received in the outpatient program, and 96.1% would enroll again if future treatment was indicated.
Conclusion: Our pharmacist-managed, ED-based outpatient treatment program for VTE disease is safe, effective and achieves a high level of patient satisfaction.
Peter G. Katis
Acute pericardial tamponade is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires immediate treatment. This report describes a patient who presented to the emergency department with an acute hemopericardium and echocardiographic evidence of cardiac tamponade following the initiation of warfarin therapy for a recently diagnosed pulmonary embolism. The association between cardiac tamponade, oral anticoagulation and pulmonary thromboembolic disease is briefly discussed.
Christine E. Tang
This article presents a case of a 43-year-old man with paradoxical embolism. The patient had simultaneous deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and bilateral limb-threatening arterial occlusions. The unifying diagnosis was paradoxical embolism through a previously undetected atrial septal defect. Suggestions for the evaluation and emergency management of paradoxical embolism are outlined, and the literature is briefly reviewed.
Neurologically normal survival after fibrinolysis during prolonged cardiac arrest: case report and discussionJanuary 2003 5 1Kevin Clark, Lois Graham, Peter J. Zed, Riyad B. Abu-Laban
Cardiac arrest secondary to pulmonary embolism is a devastating condition with a high mortality rate. It is currently unclear whether fibrinolysis (thrombolysis) is beneficial in this setting. We report the case of a 28-year-old woman with a pulmonary embolism who developed return of pulses following the administration of tissue plasminogen activator after 38 minutes of pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest. She went on to make a full neurologic and cardiopulmonary recovery. This case is discussed with reference to the current literature on the subject.
Patrick T. Fok, Robert Primavesi
Are four common clinical decision rules, in combination with normal D-dimer results, comparable in their ability to clinically exclude the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism?
Douma RA, Mos ICM, Erkens PMG, et al. Performance of 4 clinical decision rules in the diagnostic management of acute pulmonary embolism: a prospective cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2011;154:709-18.
To directly compare the performance of four different clinical decision rules, the Wells rule, revised Geneva score, simplified Wells rule, and simplified revised Geneva score, in combination with D-dimer results, to exclude pulmonary embolism.